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Gary Wessel, PHD

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Gary Wessel

Title: Professor of Biology
Department: Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, & Biochemistry

+1 401 863 1051

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Overview | Research | Grants/Awards | Teaching | Publications

Our research interest is the egg. We examine the molecular biology of oogenesis, fertilization, and the specification of primordial germ cells during early development. We explore conserved mechanisms found in humans, mice, starfish, and sea urchins.


University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
B.A. 1978; Biology and Environmental Sciences

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
Ph.D. 1986; Developmental Biology
Mentors: Drs. David R. McClay and Richard B. Marchase

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center,Houston
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
NIH Postdoctoral Fellow; May 1986 - April 1989
Sponsors: Drs. William H. Klein and William J. Lennarz

* University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; May 1989 - July 1990
* Brown University, Division of Biology and Medicine; Assistant Professor of Biology; July 1990 - July 1996
• Brown University, Division of Biology and Medicine; Associate Professor of Biology; July 1996 – 2001
• Brown University, Division of Biology and Medicine; Professor of Biology; June 2001 – present
• Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA; Senior Scientist (Brown); December 2005 – present



Research Description

Fertilization and the block to polyspermy: Sperm-egg interactions result in a cascade of responses including exocytosis of cortical granules. This secretory event functions in the permanent block to polyspermy, important for fertilization, and in the formation of a protected environment for early embryonic development. We study the function of cortical granules in the modification of the egg cell surface and extracellular matrix using a molecular analysis of the protease and peroxidase activities, the structural proteins of the fertilization envelope, and the major protein of the extraembryonic matrix, hyalin.

Signaling Mechanisms in Oogenesis, Meiotic Maturation, and Fertilization: We examine the signal transduction pathways leading to normal cell function. These pathways target the release of free calcium into the cytoplasm, the generation of nitric oxide, and resumption of the cell cycle. We find a network of interacting molecular machines that include heterotrimeric G-proteins, and use yeast two-hydrid approaches to identify new components of each pathway.

Oocyte-Specific Transcriptional Mechanisms: Oocytes make several organelles specific to their cell type and transcribe a host of genes not active in any other cell. Some of these genes make the most abundant transcripts in the cell, which are then degraded selectively at maturation of the cell. Using GFP reporter gene constructs, we examine the gene's cis-elements, and through use of bioinformatic approaches, have cloned and are testing specific transcription factors found greatly enriched in oocytes for their contribution to this cell's phenotypic development.


Fellow of the Marine Biological Laboratory, F.B. Bang Fellowship, Woods Hole, MA; 1991
Basil O'Conner Starter Scholar Research Award, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation; 1992-1994
Visiting Summer Scholar, Duke University Marine Laboratory; 1993, 1994, 1998-present
NIH Research Career Development Award, 1997-2002
Visiting Scientist, Asamushi Marine Lab, University of Tohoku, March 1999, 2003, 2005
Elizabeth H. LeDuc Award for Teaching Excellence in the Life Sciences, Brown University, 2003
Astor Visiting Lectureship, University of Oxford, Cambridge England, 2008
Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Elected 2011


• Editorial Boards
• Editor-in-Chief, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 2008 - present
• Executive Editor, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 2007
• The Open Cell and Developmental Biology Journal 2007 - present
• Section Editor, MCB, BMC Biology Image Library, 2006 - present
• Member, BMC Developmental Biology, 2004 - present
• Member, Developmental Dynamics. 2002 - present
• Member, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2002 – present
• Associate Editor, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 2000 – 2007
• Reviews Editor, Developmental Biology, 1998 – 2008
• Member, CRC Year Book of Developmental Biology, 1988-1990
• Gordon Conference on Fertilization and Activation of Development, Vice-Chairperson, 2013; Chairperson, 2015
• NSF Grant Review Panel (Developmental Biology) 2012
• Co-Organizer (with John Gearhart and Deborah Driscoll) MRD/UPenn Conference on Regenerative Medicine and Reproduction, University of Pennsylvania, June 2011
• Co-Organizer (with Steve Stricker – University of New Mexico and Takeo Kishimoto – Tokyo Institute of Technology) Conference on Germ Cells and Oocyte Maturation Sept 2010
• Grant reviewer for Medical Research Council, United Kingdom 2010
• Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole MA, Corporation Committee on Courses, member, 2010 - present.
• Wiley Conference on Molecular Reproduction and Development. Brown University organizer 2009
• NIH Board of Scientific Counselors Review; National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Member 2008, 2010
• Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole MA, Embryology course Faculty, 2003 - 2006
• Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole MA, Education Committee member, 2003 – Present.
• National Institutes of Health, Reviewer: Cellular, Molecular, and Integrative Reproduction Study Section (CMIR) 2008 – present (member); CMIR Chairperson 2011 -2013; Cellular Biology and Physiology Study Section, Subcommittee 1, (CBY1 – ad hoc) June 1994, February 1995; Cell and Developmental Function-5 (CDF-5 - ad hoc) October 2001; Reproductive Biology, Feb 2002; 2008 (ad hoc); Dev-2 February 2005 (ad hoc); Dev-1, February 2006 (ad hoc);

Funded Research

C. Research Projects Ongoing or Completed in the Last Three Years:
National Institutes of Health HD28152, 03/02 - 04/06
Title: Cortical Granule Regulation and Function
Principal Investigator: Gary M. Wessel
Goals: This project examines the regulation of the cortical granule protease, and the mechanisms of cortical granule translocation to the cell surface, followed by stimulus-dependent exocytosis.

NSF IOB-0620607, 08/06 - 09/09
Title: Primordial Germ Cell Determination in Basal Deuterostomes
Principal Investigator: Gary M. Wessel
Goals: This project examines the mechanism used by embryos to ascribe a fate of primordial germ cell to a small subset of its population.

National Institutes of Health HD28152, 04/08 - 03/12
Title: The Egg-to-Embryo Cell Surface Transition
Principal Investigator: Gary M. Wessel
Goals: This project examines the mechanisms of the cell surface changes that occur on the egg essential for initiating early embryonic development.

Teaching Experience

BI0050 Cell and Molecular Biology

This course examines the structure and function of the basic unit of an organism, the cell. An experimental approach is used to examine cellular functions, ranging from gene transcription, cell division and protein secretion, to cell motility, and signal transduction. Relevance to disease, biotechnological application, and social context will be considered. Course intended primarily for sophomores and freshman with BI 20 credit. Prerequisite: BI 20 or equivalent.

BI0050 S01 Web Site Exam Group: 04 Instructor(s): G. M. Wessel
M.,W.,F. 11:00-11:50 AM (D Hour) MacMillan Hall - 117

Courses Taught

  • Analysis of development (Bio 131)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology (Bio 50)
  • Comparative Vertebrate Embryology (Bio 32)
  • Synthetic Biological Systems (Bio 121)
  • Synthetic Biological Systems in Principle and Practice (Bio 122)
  • Topics in Cell Biology (Bio 293)
  • Topics in Developmental Biology (Bio 232)

Selected Publications

  • 29. Wong, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2008). Renovation of the egg extracellular matrix at fertilization. Int. J. Dev. Biol. in press.(2008)
  • 71. Wong, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2008).Free-Radical Crosslinking of Specific Proteins Alters the Function of the Egg Extracellular Matrix At Fertilization. Development 135:431-440.(2008)
  • 72. Voronina, E., Lopez, M., Juliano, C., Gustafson, E., Song, J., Extavour, C., George, S., Oliveri, P., McClay, D.R., and Wessel, G.M. (2008). Vasa protein expression is restricted to the small micromeres of the sea urchin, but is inducible in other lineages early in development. Dev. Biol.314: 276-286.(2008)
  • 26. Wessel, G.M., Juliano, C.E., Wong, J., Gustafson, E., Song, J.L. (2007). Molecular Markers of Oocyte and Primordial Germ Cell Development in the Sea Urchin. In "Proceedings of the International Echinoderm Conference." in press.(2007)
  • 69. Wong, J., Koppel, D., Cowan, A, Wessel, G.M. (2007). Membrane Hemifusion Is a Stable Intermediate of Exocytosis. Developmental Cell 12: 653-659.(2007)
  • 70. Song, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2007). Genes involved in the RNA interference pathway are differentially expressed during sea urchin development. Devel. Dyn. 236:3180-3190.(2007)
  • 25. Leguia, M.L. and Wessel, G. M. (2007). The many faces of egg activation at fertilization. Signal Transduction. 7: 118-141.(2007)
  • 28. Parrington, J., Davis, L., Galione, A., Wessel, G.M. (2007). The spark of life – how a sperm activates the egg at fertilization. Dev. Dynamics. 236:2027–2038.(2007)
  • 27. Wong, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2007). FRAP analysis of secretory granule lipids and proteins in the sea urchin egg. In Methods in Molecular Biology, Andrei Ivanov, Ed. Vol 440, pages 60-75.(2007)
  • 8. Molecular Reproduction and Development Vol 73, No 12 (2006).(2006)
  • 67. Weinstock, G., Gibbs, R., Sodergren, E., Davidson, E.H., Cameron, A., The Sea Urchin Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006). The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Science 314: 941-952.(2006)
  • 64. Juliano, C., Voronina, E., Aldrich, M.A., Stack, C., Cameron, A., and Wessel, G.M. (2006). Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development. Dev. Biol. 300: 406-415.(2006)
  • 62. Beane, W.S., Voronina, E., Wessel, G.M. and McClay, D.R. (2006). Lineage-specific expansions provide genomic complexity among sea urchin GTPases. Dev. Biol. 300:165-179.(2006)
  • 61. Leguia, M. and Wessel, G.M. (2006). The Histamine H1 Receptor Activates the Nitric Oxide Pathway at Fertilization. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 73: 1550-1563.(2006)
  • 60. Leguia, M. Berg, L., Conner, S., and Wessel, G.M. (2006). Synaptotagmin I is involved in the regulation of cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 73:895–905.(2006)
  • 63. Roux, M.M. Townley, I.K., Raisch, M., Reade, A., Bradham, C., Humphreys, G., Gunaratne, H.J., Killian, C.E., Moy, G., Su, Y-H., Ettensohn, C.E., Wilt, F., Vacquier, V.D., Wessel, G.M., and Foltz, K.R. (2006). A functional genomic and proteomic perspective of sea urchin calcium signaling and egg activation. Dev. Biol. 300:416-433.(2006)
  • 66. Briggs, E. and G.M. Wessel (2006). In the beginning …. Animal fertilization and sea urchin development. Dev. Biol. 300:15-26.(2006)
  • 65. Song, J., Wong, J., and Wessel, G.M. (2006). Oogenesis: single cell development and differentiation. Dev. Biol. 300: 385-405.(2006)
  • 68. Wong, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2006). Rendezvin: an essential gene encoding independent, differentially secreted egg proteins that organize the fertilization envelope proteome after self-association. Mol. Biol. Cell 17: 5241-5252.(2006)
  • 24. Wong, J. and Wessel, G.M. (2006). Defending the zygote: Search for the ancestral animal block to polyspermy. In Current Topics in Developmental Biology (G. Schatten, ed) Academic Press, vol 72: 1-151.(2006)
  • 9. Development Growth and Differentiation Dec. (2006)(2006)
  • 23. Wessel, G. M. and Freiman, R. (2005). Every Sperm - Oocyte, and Primordial Germ Cell Protocol - is Sacred. Invited book review "Germ Cell Protocols" Ed. Heidi Schatten. Development 132: 5127-5128.(2005)
  • 59. Wong, J. and Wessel, G. M. (2005). Reactive Oxygen Species and Udx1 During Early Sea Urchin Development. Dev. Bio. 288: 317-333.(2005)
  • 22. Song, J.L. and Wessel, G.M. (2005). How to make an egg: transcriptional regulation in oocytes. Differentiation 73:1-17.(2005)
  • 20. Wessel, G.M. and Katow, H. (2004). Regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos. In Rise and Fall of Epithelial Phenotype Ed. by Pierre Savagner, Landes Bioscience(2004)
  • 16. Ettensohn, C.A., Wessel, G.M. and Wray, G. editors (2004). Development of Sea Urchins, Ascidians and Other Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes: An Experimental Analysis. Academic Press.(2004)
  • 57. Voronina, E. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Beta/gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins contribute to calcium release at fertilization in sea urchins. J. Cell Science 117: 5995-6005.(2004)
  • 55. Leguia, M. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Selective expression of a sec1/munc18 member in sea urchin eggs and embryos. Gene Expr Patterns 4:645-657.(2004)
  • 52. Haley, S.A. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Regulated proteolysis by CGSP1 at fertilization. Mol. Biol. Cell 15: 2084-2092.(2004)
  • 50. Wong, J., and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Major components in a sea urchin block to polyspermy are structurally and functionally conserved. Evo. Dev.6: 134-152.(2004)
  • 51. Voronina, E. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Regulatory contribution of heterotrimeric G-proteins to oocyte maturation in the sea urchin. Mech. Dev.121: 247-259.(2004)
  • 53. Brooks, J.M. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). The major yolk protein of sea urchins is endocytosed by a dynamin-dependent mechanism. Biol. Reprod. 71: 705-713.(2004)
  • 54. Haley, S.A. and Wessel, G.M. (2004). Proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface protein p160 is required for detachment of the fertilization envelop in the sea urchin. Dev. Biol. 272: 191-202.(2004)
  • 56. Covian-Nares F, Martinez-Cadena G, Lopez-Godinez J, Voronina E, Wessel G.M., Garcia-Soto J. (2004). A rho-signaling pathway mediates cortical granule translocation in the sea urchin oocyte. Mech. Dev. 121:225-235.(2004)
  • 58. Wong, J., Creton, R., and Wessel, G. M. (2004). The Oxidative Burst At Fertilization Is Dependent Upon Activation of the Dual Oxidase, Udx1. Developmental Cell 7:801-814.(2004)
  • 18. Wessel, G.M. Voronina, E., and Brooks, J.M. (2004). Obtaining and Handling Echinoderm Oocytes In Development of Sea Urchins, Ascidians and Other Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes: An Experimental Analysis (Eds. Ettensohn, Wessel, Wray) Academic Press. pgs 87-114.(2004)
  • 17. Ettensohn, C.A., G.M. Wessel, and Wray, G. (2004). The invertebrate deuterostomes: An introduction to their phylogeny, reproduction, development, and genomics. In Development of Sea Urchins, Ascidians and Other Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes: An Experimental Analysis. Academic Press. pgs. 1-13(2004)
  • 19. Wessel, G. M. and Vacquier, V. (2004). Isolation of Organelles and Components From Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos. In Development of Sea Urchins, Ascidians and Other Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes: An Experimental Analysis (Eds. Ettensohn, Wessel, Wray) Academic Press. pgs. 491-544.(2004)
  • 21. Wessel, G.M. (2004). Essential Cell Biology, 2nd edition. Invited Book Review. Quarterly Review of Biology. 74: 417-418.(2004)
  • 7. Journal of Cell Science, Vol 117, No. 25, (2004).(2004)
  • 6. Evolution & Development, Vol 6 No. 3 (2004).(2004)
  • 5. Developmental Biology, Vol 261, No 2 (2003).(2003)
  • 48. Brooks, J.M. and Wessel, G.M. (2003). Selective transport and packaging of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin. Dev. Biol 261: 353-370.(2003)
  • 47. Voronina, E., Marzluff, W.F., and Wessel, G.M. (2003). Cyclin B synthesis is required for sea urchin oocyte maturation. Dev. Biol. 256:258-275.(2003)
  • 49. Szule, J.A., Jarvis, S.E., Hibbert, J.E., Spafford, J.D., Braun, J.E., Zamponi, G.W., Wessel, G.M., Coorssen, J. (2003). Calcium-triggered membrane fusion proceeds independently of specific presynaptic proteins. J. Biol. Chem.278: 24251-24254.(2003)
  • 15. Voronina, E. and Wessel, G.M. (2003). The regulation of oocyte maturation. In Current Topics in Developmental Biology (G. Schatten, ed) Academic Press, Vol 58: 53-110.(2003)
  • 14. Brooks, J.M. and Wessel, G.M. (2003). A diversity of yolk protein dynamics and function. Recent Devel. Cell Res., 1:1-30.(2003)
  • 46. Wessel, G.M., Berg, L., and Conner, S.D. (2002). Cortical granule translocation is linked to meiotic maturation in the sea urchin oocyte. Development 129: 4315-4325.(2002)
  • 44. Moore, J. C., Sumerel, J., Nichols, J.A., Wikramanayake. A., Wessel, G.M., Marzluff, W.F. (2002). Cyclin D/cdk4 Expression in Early Sea Urchin Embryos: A Requirement for Cyclin D Prior to Gastrulation. MCB 22:4863-75.(2002)
  • 45. Brooks, J.M. and Wessel, G.M. (2002). The major yolk protein of sea urchins is a transferrin-like, iron binding protein. Dev. Biol. 245: 1-12.(2002)
  • 13. Wessel, G. M., Brooks, J.M., Green, E., Haley, S., Voronina, E., Wong, J., Zaydfudim, V., and Conner, S. (2001). The Biology of Cortical Granules. In International Review of Cytology. (Ed. K.W. Jeon) Academic Press, San Diego, CA., Volume 209, pgs 117 – 206.(2001)
  • 42. Ramalho-Santos J, Moreno RD, Wessel GM, Chan EK, Schatten G. (2001). Membrane trafficking machinery components associated with the mammalian acrosome during spermiogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 267:45-60.(2001)
  • 40. Wessel, G.M., Zaydfudim, V., Hsu, Y-T., J., Laidlaw, M., Brooks, J. (2001). Direct Molecular Interaction of a conserved yolk granule protein in sea urchins. Dev. Growth Diff 42:507-512.(2001)
  • 39. Conner, S. and Wessel, G.M. (2001) Syntaxin, VAMP, and Rab3 are selectively expressed during sea urchin embryogenesis. Mol. Reprod. Dev 58:1-8.(2001)
  • 41. Wessel, G.M., Conner, S., Laidlaw, M. Harrison, J., LaFleur Jr., G., (2001). SFE1, a major constituent of the fertilization envelope in the sea urchin is made by oocytes and contains LDL-receptor-like repeats. Biology of Reproduction, 63:1706-1712.(2001)
  • 43. Voronina, E. and Wessel, G.M. (2001). Apoptosis in oocytes, eggs, and early embryos of the sea urchin. Mol. Reprod. Dev 60:553-561.(2001)
  • 4. Molecular Reproduction & Development, Vol 58, No.1 (2001).(2001)
  • 38. Ramalho-Santos J, Sutovsky P, Simerly C, Oko R, Wessel GM, Hewitson L, Schatten G. (2000). ICSI choreography: fate of sperm structures after monospermic rhesus ICSI and first cell cycle implications. Hum Reprod. 12:2610-20(2000)
  • 36. Ramalho-Santos, J., Moreno, R., Sutovsky, P., Chan, W-S., Hewitson, L., Wessel, G.M., Simerly, C., and Schatten, G. (2000). SNAREs in mammalian sperm: Possible implications for fertilization. Dev. Biol. 223: 54-69.(2000)
  • 34. Gross, V.S., Wessel, G.M., Florman, H.M., and Ducibella, T. (2000) A monoclonal antibody that recognizes mammalian cortical granules and a 32 kDa protein in mouse eggs. Biology of Reproduction 63:575-81.(2000)
  • 33. Moreno, R.D., Ramalho-Santos, J., Chan, E., Wessel, G.M. Schatten, G. (2000). The Golgi apparatus segregates from the lysosomal/acrosomal vesicle during Rhesus spermiogenesis: Structural alterations. Dev. Biol. 219: 334-349.(2000)
  • 35. Conner, S. and Wessel, G.M. (2000). A rab3 homolog in the sea urchin functions in cell division. FASEB J 14:1559-1566(2000)
  • 37. Sumerel, J., Morre, J., Schnackenberg, J., Nichols, J., Canman, J., Wessel, G., and Marzluff, W. (2000). Cyclin E and its associated cdk activity do not cycle during early embryogenesis of the sea urchin. Dev. Biol.234:425-440.(2000)
  • 31. Haley, S. and Wessel, G.M. (1999). A cortical granule serine protease CGSP1 of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is autocatalytic and contains a low-density lipoprotein receptor-like domain. Dev. Biol 211:1-10.(1999)
  • 32. Conner, S. and Wessel, G. M. (1999). Syntaxin is required for cell division. Mol. Biol. Cell 10:2735-2743.(1999)
  • 12. Wessel. G.M. (1999). Extracellular matrix molecules of the sea urchin. In Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins. (Ed. T. Kreis and R. Vale) Oxford University Press. pg 436-455.(1999)
  • 11. Wessel, G.M.and Wikramanayake, A. (1999). How to grow a gut: Mechanisms of gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo. BioEssays 21:459-471.(1999)
  • 29. Conner, S., and Wessel, G. W. (1998). Rab3 mediates cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin egg. Dev. Biol. 203:334-344.(1998)
  • 28. Wessel, G. M., Berg, L., Adelson, D., Cannon, G., McClay, D.R. (1998). Molecular characterization of hyalin - a cell adhesion molecule of the hyalin layer. Dev. Biol. 193:115-126.(1998)
  • 27. LaFleur, G.J., Horiuchi, Y., and Wessel, G.M. (1998). Ovoperoxidase is a member of the heme-dependent peroxidase family and is selectively expressed by developing oocytes. Mech. Dev. 70:77-89.(1998)
  • 30. Edelman, L., Zheng, L., Wang, Z-F., Marzluff, W., Wessel, G.M. and Childs, G. (1998). The TATA-binding protein in the sea urchin embryo is maternally derived. Dev. Biol. 204:293-304.(1998)
  • 10. Wessel, G.M. (1997). Biogenesis and function of cortical granules in sea urchin eggs. In Progress in Developmental Biology. (Ed. J. Collier) John Wiley and Sons. pgs 267-304.(1997)
  • 26. Schulz, J., Wessel, G.M., and Vacquier, V. (1997). Syntaxin and VAMP are associated in sea urchin sperm and are shed in membrane vesicles during acrosomal exocytosis. Dev. Biol. 191:80-87.(1997)
  • 24. Berg, L. and Wessel, G.M. (1997). Cortical granules of the sea urchin translocate early in oocyte maturation. Development, 124:1845-1850.(1997)
  • 25. Conner, S., Leaf, D., and Wessel, G.M. (1997). Members of the SNARE hypothesis are associated with cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin egg. Mol. Rep. Dev. 48:106-118.(1997)
  • 23. Berg, L., Chen, S.W. and Wessel, G.M. (1996). An extracellular matrix molecule that is selectively expressed during development is important for gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo. Development 122:703-713.(1996)
  • 22. Chen, S.W. and Wessel, G.M. (1996). Endoderm differentiation in vitro identifies a transitional period for endoderm ontogeny in the sea urchin embryo. Dev. Biol. 175:57-65.(1996)
  • 21. Wessel, G.M. and Berg, L. (1995). A spatially restricted molecule of the extracellular matrix is contributed both maternally and zygotically in the sea urchin embryo. Dev. Growth Diff. 37:517-527.(1995)
  • 20. Wessel, G., Clark, F., and Berg, L. (1995). A diversity of enzymes involved in the regulation of reversible tyrosine phosphorylation in sea urchin eggs and embryos. Comp. Biochm. Phys.110:493-502.(1995)
  • 18. Wessel, G.M. (1995). A protein of the sea urchin cortical granules is targeted to the fertilization envelope and contains an LDL-receptor-like motif. Dev. Biol. 167:388-397.(1995)
  • 19. Holy, J., Wessel, G., Berg, L. Gregg, R., and Schatten, G. (1995). Molecular characterization and expression patterns of a B-type nuclear lamin during sea urchin embryogenesis. Dev. Biol. 168: 464-478.(1995)
  • 17. Laidlaw, M. and Wessel, G.M. (1994). Cortical granule biogenesis is active throughout oogenesis in sea urchins. Development. 120: 1325-1333.(1994)
  • 16. Wessel, G.M. and Chen, S. (1993). Transient, Localized Accumulation of *-Spectrin during Sea Urchin Morphogenesis. Dev. Biol. 155:161-171.(1993)
  • 9. Wessel, G.M. (1993). Differentiation of the Endodermal Epithelium during Gastrulation in the Sea Urchin Embryo. In: Molecular Basis of Morphogenesis. Bernfield, M. (ed.), 51st Annual Symposium of The Society for Developmental Biology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp.255-266.(1993)
  • 14. Gong, Z., Cserjesi, P., Wessel, G.M., and Brandhorst, B.P. (1991). Structure and Expression of the Polyubiquitin Gene in Sea Urchin Embryos. Mol.Rep.Dev. 28:111-118.(1991)
  • 15. Wessel, G.M., Etkin, M., and Benson, S. (1991). Primary Mesenchyme Cells of the Sea Urchin Require an Autonomously Produced, Nonfibrillar Collagen for Skeletogenesis. Dev. Biol. 148:261-272.(1991)
  • 2. Genes and Development, Vol.4, No.1 (1990).(1990)
  • 13. Gan, L., Wessel, G.M., and Klein, W.H. (1990). Regulatory Elements from Related Spec Genes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Yield Different Spatial Patterns with a lac Z Reporter Gene. Dev. Biol., 142: 346-359.(1990)
  • 12. Wessel, G.M., Zhang, W., and Klein, W.H. (1990). Myosin Heavy Chain Accumulates in Dissimilar Cell-Types of the Macromere Lineage in the Sea Urchin Embryo. Dev. Biol. 140:447-454.(1990)
  • 8. Klein, W.H., Xiang, M., and Wessel, G.M. (1990). Spec Proteins: Calcium-Binding Proteins in the Embryonic Ectoderm of Sea Urchins. In: Novel Calcium-Binding Proteins, (C.Heizmann, ed.), Springer-Verlag Press, Heidelberg, pp 465-479.(1990)
  • 3. Developmental Biology, Vol.142, No.2 (1990).(1990)
  • 7. Klein, W.H., Tomlinson, C.R., Zhang, W., Xiang, M., Kozlowski, M., Gan, L., Nguyen, T., and Wessel, G.M. (1989). Ectoderm Differentiation and the Spec Gene family of Sea Urchins. Developmental Biology, UCLA Symposium on Molecular and Cellular Biology, Vol. 125. (Davidson, E., Ruderman, J., and Posakony, J., eds.), Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp.134-145.(1989)
  • 10. Wessel, G.M. (1989). Cortical Granule-Specific Components are Present Within Developing Oocytes and Accessory Cells during Sea Urchin Oogenesis. J.Histochem.Cytochem., 37:1409-1420.(1989)
  • 9. Wessel, G.M., Zhang, W., Tomlinson, C., Lennarz, W.J., Klein, W.H. (1989). Transcription of the Spec 1-like Gene of Lytechinus is Selectively Inhibited in Response to Disruption of the Collagenous Extracellular Matrix. Development, 106:335-347.(1989)
  • 11. Wessel, G.M., Goldberg, L., Lennarz, W.J., and Klein, W.H. (1989). Gastrulation in the Sea Urchin Embryo is Accompanied by the Accumulation of an Endoderm-Specific mRNA. Dev. Biol. 136:526-536.(1989)
  • 7. Xiang, M., Bedard, P-A., Wessel, G.M., Filion,M., Brandhorst,B., and Klein, W.H. (1988). Tandem Duplication and Divergence of a Sea Urchin Protein Belonging to the Troponin C Superfamily. J.Biol.Chem.,263:17173-17180.(1988)
  • 8. Decker, G.L., Valdizan, M.C., Wessel, G.M., and Lennarz, W.J. (1988). Developmental Distribution of a Cell-Surface Glycoprotein in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev. Biol.,129:339-349.(1988)
  • 6. Wessel, G.M., Truschel, M.R., Chambers, S.M., and McClay, D.R. (1987). A Cortical Granule-Specific Enzyme, *-1,3-Glucanase in Sea Urchin Eggs. Gamete Res., 18:339-348.(1987)
  • 5. Wessel, G.M. and McClay, D.R. (1987). Gastrulation in the Sea Urchin Embryo Requires the Deposition of Collagen in the Extracellular Matrix. Dev. Biol., 121:149-165.(1987)
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