In ligament reconstruction therapy, the ligament has been torn so badly that the patient can not function properly in day-to-day life without surgery as the ligament will not heal on its own. In the case of reconstruction surgery, the ligament has been so badly damaged that it can't be sutured back together and another ligament must be used to replace its function.
Since the first successful ligament reconstruction surgery in 1917, orthopedic surgeons have debated and implanted numerous types of ligaments to replace the function of the torn ligament. The three main types of ligaments used in ligament reconstruction surgery are:
Autologous Ligaments – a ligament or tendon harvested
from the patient and re-implanted into their problematic knee.
Allogeneic Ligaments – usually a ligament harvested
from a cadaver
Artificial Ligaments – ligaments manufactured from various materials to simulate the properties of a ligament