THE HISTORY OF STEM CELLS (21)
1878-The first attempts were made to fertilize mammalian eggs outside the body
1959-First animals made by in-vitro fertilization (IVF)
1960s-Teratocarcinomas determined to originate from embryonic germ cells in mice. Embryonal carcoinoma cells (EC) identified as a kind of stem cell.
1968-The first human egg is fertilized in vitro
1970s- EC cells injected into mouse blastocysts make chimeric mice. Cultured SC cells are explored as models of embryonic development in mice.
1978-the first IVF baby is born in England
1981-Mouse ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Mouse ES cells are grown in vitro. ES cells injected into mice form teratomas.
1984-88-Pluripotent, clonal cells called embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are developed. When exposed to retinoic acid these cells differentiate into neuron-like cells and other cell types.
1989-A clonal line of human embryonal carcinoma cells is derived that yields tissues from all three primary germ layers. They have limited replicative and differentiative capacity.
1994-Human blastocysts are generated and the inner cell mass is maintained in culture. ES like cells form in the center and retain stem cell like morphology.
1995-96-Non-human primate ES cells are maintained in vitro from the inner cell mass of monkeys. These cells are pluripotent and differentiate normally into all three primary germ layers
1998-ES cells from the inner cell mass of normal human blastocysts are cultured and maintained normally for many passages. EG cells are also derived and grown in vivo.
2000-Scientists derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. They proliferate in vitro for a long time and form all three germ layers and teratomas when injected into immune deficient mice.
2001-As human ES cell lines are shared and new lines are derived, more research groups are focusing attention on the differentiation of cells in vitro. Many methods focus on making human tissues for transplantation.
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